Physiotherapy and Acupuncture
These techniques and modalities are a complement any pain management program, and sometimes are central to it. The evidence of benefit for physiotherapy is well-established in both humans and animals to improve strength and mobility. Science is also beginning to illuminate the underlying mechanisms in acupuncture and demonstrate effectiveness in a number of pain conditions. While not as of yet certified in physical rehabilitation and acupuncture, basic aspects of these modalities may still be incorporated into an integrated pain management program. When determined that a pet might benefit from a more comprehensive application of these modalities, a recommendation for referral may be made to certified practitioners of the discipline.
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